2022 Education in Mongolia


Bryce Bathroom, Affiliate Director of Analysis, World Schooling Companies (WES), D. Narantuya, Lecturer of International Languages, Arkhangai Academics College, Mongolian Nationwide College of Schooling (MNUE), and G. Enkhtuya, English Instructor, Laboratory College #1, Tsetserleg, Arkhangai Aimag, Mongolia

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Sandwiched between its two large neighbors, China and Russia, Mongolia is among the world’s most sparsely populated nations. Regardless of its comparatively massive dimension—the nation is simply slightly smaller than the state of Alaska in the US—Mongolia is residence to solely about 3.2 million individuals. The landlocked nation is a mixture of steppe (grasslands), mountainous terrain (notably within the west), and desert, notably the Gobi Desert within the south.

Internationally, impressions of latest Mongolia are often formed by the nation’s nomadic individuals, who’ve historically discovered their livelihoods in herding the “Five Jewels”: sheep, goats, cattle (together with yaks at occasions), horses, and camels (particularly the two-hump Bactrian camel). All 5 animal sorts have historically offered Mongolians with meat, dairy merchandise, and wool. Maybe probably the most iconic picture of Mongolia to outsiders is the normal nomadic residence, a conveyable, spherical, wood-and-felt tent often called a ger (actually “residence” in Mongolian), typically known as by the Russian phrase “yurt” in English.

Education in Mongolia

However traditionally, the nation is maybe finest often called the origin of the good Mongol Empire that, at its top within the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, spanned a lot of Eurasia.[1] In some ways, this empire marks the beginning of Mongolia’s historical past as a unified nation, as Genghis Khan—identified to Mongolians as Chinggis Khaan[2] (Чингис Хаан)—united the warring nomadic tribes of the Mongolian steppe and commenced to beat neighboring “sedentary” civilizations. His sons and grandsons additional expanded the empire, which, at its largest, stretched from Japanese Europe to Korea and from Siberia to the northern components of the Center East, India, and Southeast Asia, and fashioned the world’s largest overland empire.

Management over the better Mongol Empire was ultimately divided amongst Genghis Khan’s sons and grandsons, who created new dynasties, such because the Ilkhanate of Persia and the Golden Horde of Russia. Kublai Khan, maybe Genghis Khan’s most well-known successor, continued his grandfather’s conquests of the warring kingdoms of China and based the Yuan Dynasty, reunifying what for hundreds of years had been a divided China.

The Empire’s Fall and the Socialist Period

The next historical past of Mongolia is far much less well-known. Nonetheless, this historical past—particularly extra just lately—has strongly formed the nation’s up to date schooling system.

After the Mongol Empire’s preliminary flurry of conquest and enlargement, its energy and affect regularly waned, particularly in distant components of the empire. There, Mongolian rulers started to undertake the customs and folkways of native communities and had been ultimately overthrown by native dynasties. The Mongols within the Mongolian homeland, nonetheless, continued their conventional nomadic lifestyle.

Nonetheless, the Mongolian homeland ultimately got here below the political management of the Qing, or Manchu, Dynasty of China. The nation, divided administratively into Internal and Outer Mongolia, remained under effective Chinese control from the late 1600s till 1911, when Mongolia declared independence below the management of the theocratic Buddhist chief the Bogd Khan. In 1921, with the assistance of the Purple (Bolshevik) Russian Military, Outer Mongolia—which at the moment contains the fashionable state of Mongolia—was totally free of the management of China and the White (Tsarist) Russian Military, which had initially entered Mongolia to push out the Chinese language. Internal Mongolia stays an autonomous area inside China.

Following the demise of the Bogd Khan in 1924, Mongolia declared itself a socialist republic, the second on this planet[3] after the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), which had been fashioned two years prior. Though by no means itself a Soviet republic, all through its socialist interval Mongolia remained a detailed ally of the us, with its main occasion, the Mongolian Individuals’s Revolutionary Social gathering (MPRP), seeking to the us’s management in Moscow for route and inspiration.[4] In return, the Soviet Union offered Mongolia with important ranges of economic help.

The Soviet Union additionally formed most of the insurance policies carried out by Mongolia throughout this era. Mongolia’s socialist authorities collectivized animal herds, typically forcibly, after which herders earned a paycheck from the federal government however didn’t personal their animals outright. The federal government additionally tried to develop new industries, similar to food processing and mining. Two new cities—Darkhan and Erdenet, now the second- and third-largest cities within the nation, respectively—sprang up round these new industries.

Necessary adjustments additionally occurred on the cultural degree. For one, the Cyrillic script used for the Russian language was launched to be used with the Mongolian language in 1941. Second, the Buddhist monasteries, longtime facilities of studying in Mongolia, had been destroyed, and plenty of monks had been defrocked and expelled or murdered.

Mass secular schooling additionally started throughout this era. Throughout the Imperial Period and the following years of Chinese language rule, formal schooling was reserved for aristocrats, authorities bureaucrats, and Buddhist monks, and was principally carried out at Buddhist monasteries.[5] However Mongolia’s socialist leaders emphasised the significance of schooling for the plenty, together with women and girls. By the Nineteen Fifties, the federal government had made the primary eight years of primary schooling—4 years of elementary and 4 years of secondary—obligatory. Two non-compulsory extra years of secondary schooling adopted, for a complete of 10 years of primary schooling. The influence of those adjustments was spectacular: Throughout this era, Mongolia achieved almost common primary schooling and had very excessive literacy charges.

Mongolia opened its first college, the Nationwide College of Mongolia (NUM), in 1943. As with primary schooling, increased schooling in Mongolia carefully adopted the Soviet mannequin, together with the educating of Marxism-Leninism. As most of the professors and instructors at NUM got here from the Soviet Union, the Russian language established a robust foothold on the increased schooling degree. Excessive-achieving college students had been even despatched to the Soviet Union and different Japanese bloc international locations for extra superior schooling. Technical and vocational establishments additionally proliferated throughout this era.

By the mid-Eighties, nonetheless, each the Soviet Union and Mongolia had begun to falter. In Mongolia, the economic system had began to stagnate, and shortages often plagued the nation’s outlets. In each international locations, discuss of and even early makes an attempt at reform had been rising.

Transition to Democracy and the Market Financial system

Within the late Eighties, younger Mongolian reformers, a lot of whom had been educated within the Soviet Union, started to push for democratic adjustments in Mongolia.[6] Impressed by the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev, the reformers needed to introduce multiparty elections, which they hoped would break the MPRP’s—and the us’s—grip on the nation. By late 1989 and early 1990, peaceable protests and starvation strikes in Sükhbaatar Sq., the primary sq. in entrance of the federal government home, had begun to multiply, attracting tens of 1000’s of individuals.

The MPRP confronted stress from the Soviet Union to deal with protestors peacefully, and each the Soviets and the Mongolian authorities needed to keep away from a Tiananmen Sq.-style confrontation. Consequently, the MPRP agreed to fulfill a number of the protestors’ calls for. In consequence, Mongolia’s first multiparty elections had been held in July 1990. Though the MPRP received a majority of the seats within the State Nice Khural (Parliament), Mongolia nonetheless adopted a brand new structure in 1992 which assured all Mongolian residents sure political freedoms and rights, together with the best to an schooling. With these adjustments, the period of communism in Mongolia successfully got here to an finish.

However the early years of Mongolia’s transition to democracy had been removed from uneventful. Even earlier than the USSR’s fall in late 1991, the Soviet Union had begun to withdraw economically, politically, and militarily from Mongolia. Their withdrawal meant that Mongolia misplaced a significant supply of economic help and located itself in debt to Russia, the us’s principal successor state.

To deal with the monetary hole, Mongolia’s authorities regarded elsewhere, and, beginning in 1990, Western and Asian donor organizations shortly started to enter the nation. The most important of those had been the key worldwide monetary establishments: the Asian Growth Financial institution (ADB), the Worldwide Financial Fund (IMF), and the World Financial institution. Bilateral establishments, similar to the US Company for Worldwide Growth (USAID), additionally began to take an curiosity in Mongolia. Quite a few non-governmental organizations (NGOs), such because the Open Society Basis, Save the Youngsters, and World Imaginative and prescient, established workplaces in Mongolia as effectively.[7] Moreover, a number of volunteer outfits arrange operations, as did the Peace Corps. The Peace Corps, which sends principally younger People to do volunteer work in creating international locations for 2 or three years at a time, nonetheless sends massive numbers of English lecturers, particularly, to help in Mongolian colleges.

The monetary establishments had been particularly influential, pushing Mongolia to transition to a market economic system as quickly as attainable. Whereas these establishments present technical help in areas of improvement similar to schooling, their help is often contingent on their evaluation of a rustic’s capability to repay its loans. Due to this fact, as a situation of receiving these loans, Mongolia was required to simply accept a strict program of “shock remedy,” which paralleled similar programs adopted in Russia and other former Soviet republics and Japanese bloc international locations. Among the many unique democratic reformers, a lot of whom now served within the authorities alongside previous MPRP members, opinions about these circumstances had been cut up, with many favoring a robust market economic system whereas others had been extra skeptical, believing that the federal government nonetheless had an vital position to play within the economic system. Nonetheless, in determined want of assist, the Mongolian authorities had little selection however to simply accept the circumstances.

Starting in 1991, the key donor organizations put collectively assist packages that included the requirement that Mongolia undertake sure “structural adjustment reforms” (SARs). These SARs included privatization of most industries and enterprises (together with the herding collectives), massive reductions in authorities budgets and spending, and elimination of most worth controls and import tariffs. Initially, donor assist targeted on market reforms and enormous infrastructure initiatives, with little of it directed at packages to scale back poverty or help strange individuals. Though many alleged that these donor organizations merely launched pre-packaged reforms with little or no understanding of Mongolian historical past and society, Mongolia’s robust dependence on assist made these organizations extraordinarily influential throughout the authorities and society extra broadly.

Whereas the economic system noticed some enhancements (similar to restocked outlets after items shortages within the Eighties), the transition was very rocky, notably within the Nineties. Beneath the guideline of decreasing public expenditures, the federal government dramatically slashed spending on schooling, well being care, and the social security web. The animal husbandry and farming industries almost collapsed. Poverty and unemployment had been widespread. Rampant inflation and outlined the early Nineties, however, fortunately, the scenario stabilized as the last decade progressed. Outdoors of donor assist, the nation had hassle attracting international funding. There have been widespread accusations of bribery and corruption towards authorities officers, and a few had been accused of getting misused international assist.

By the early 2000s, the economic system had begun to stabilize and even develop. Annual gross domestic product (GDP) development elevated from about 1 p.c in 2000 to 10 p.c in 2007. Though the nation’s GDP dropped sharply in 2009 due to the global financial crisis, it shortly regained momentum. In 2011, Mongolia’s GDP grew at an outstanding price of 17 p.c, among the highest on this planet on the time. Mining and pure useful resource extraction, which had targeted on the nation’s enormous reserves of coal, copper, gold, uranium, and different minerals, had been principal drivers of this development and proceed to energy a lot of Mongolia’s financial improvement at the moment.

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This development prompted the World Financial institution to briefly, from 2015 to 2016, classify Mongolia as an higher middle-income nation alongside international locations like Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey, in addition to its two main neighbors, China and Russia. However a subsequent decline in Mongolia’s financial exercise has since led the World Financial institution to reevaluate that evaluation. Today, the World Financial institution consists of Mongolia amongst decrease middle-income international locations, a classification it shares with, for instance, India, Morocco, and the Philippines.

Mongolia’s development has been accompanied by a shift in donor priorities. Following criticism from numerous quarters, together with Mongolian authorities officers and even from inside, donor organizations have begun to rethink their strategy to assist, focusing extra of their efforts on serving to strange Mongolians.

Modern traits in Mongolian schooling have mirrored broader traits in Mongolian society. As a part of the SARs, donors pushed the Mongolian authorities to scale back its schooling expenditures and introduce person charges. Many mother and father, notably these from rural and nomadic communities, pulled their youngsters out of faculty, as they might not afford new charges for dormitories, transportation, textbooks, and different necessities. Mother and father pulled boys, whose labor was wanted in herding, out of faculty extra often than ladies, citing the curriculum’s lack of relevance for herding and a dearth of financial alternatives for varsity graduates.

In consequence, within the early half of the Nineties, enrollment in basic education decreased sharply. The gross enrollment ratio (GER) for elementary schooling fell from about one hundred pc in 1991 to 81 p.c in 1993. Over the identical interval, the decrease secondary GER fell from 91 p.c to 76 p.c, and higher secondary GER fell from 69 p.c to 45 p.c. A 2010 coverage word from the attributed the marked decline to the “contraction of fiscal and family expenditures and […] the dismantling of the collectives and social security nets which offered [basic educational] companies.” The preliminary post-socialist years additionally noticed many colleges shut due to a scarcity of funding and lecturers, massive numbers of whom give up as a consequence of poor salaries and a scarcity of educating assets.

Within the late Nineties, nonetheless, enrollment started to get better. By 2000, elementary enrollment was close to common, and secondary enrollment returned to ranges near these of 1990.

Largely because of the demand for expert labor available in the market economic system, Mongolian increased schooling expanded very rapidly throughout this era. In 1991, the upper schooling GER was solely about 14 p.c, however by 2009, it was 47 p.c. The variety of increased schooling establishments additionally proliferated. Over the identical interval (from 1991 to 2009), the variety of public establishments elevated from 14 to 42. Much more notable was the expansion of personal establishments, which didn’t exist through the socialist interval. By 2009, there have been 151 such establishments, although most of them had been very small.

Schooling Throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic

As was the case worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic brought about main disruptions to schooling in Mongolia. The federal government determined to shift schooling all through the nation on-line beginning in January 2020. On-line schooling is new for Mongolian lecturers and college students, particularly on the secondary degree, so virtually all colleges have held trainings to instruct lecturers and college students in set up and attend on-line programs. Students in any respect ranges, from early childhood schooling to increased schooling, began on-line programs utilizing quite a lot of completely different platforms. For youthful college students, notably these on the kindergarten and elementary ranges, classes had been broadcast via television nationwide. On the secondary and better schooling ranges, numerous modes have been used, from tv to on-line platforms similar to Moodle, Google Classroom, and Zoom. Most in-person studying resumed in fall 2021, with most college students following a hybrid schedule that mixes in-person and digital lessons.

For the reason that Nineties, Mongolian schooling in any respect ranges has relied closely on assist and technical help from donor organizations. The Asian Growth Financial institution (ADB) has been notably lively in schooling, typically as an advisor to the schooling ministry.[8] Different organizations, together with the World Financial institution, bilateral organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), have carved out niches for themselves in the case of aiding Mongolia’s schooling system. This help has usually been designed and marketed as a means to enhance Mongolia’s economic system. The federal government has launched numerous reforms, typically first developed in Western international locations, similar to student-centered studying, outcomes-based schooling, and even vouchers. One vital reform occurred within the 2000s when Mongolia moved from a 10-year primary schooling system modeled after that of the Soviet Union, to the extra internationally normal 12-year mannequin (described in additional element beneath).

An Overview of Mongolia At this time

Geography and Local weather

Mongolia consists of 21 provinces every known as an aimag (аймаг) and the individually administered metropolis (khot or scorching/хот) of Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар),[9] the nationwide capital and residential to about 45 percent of the total population. Every aimag has a capital often called an aimag heart (amgiin tüv/амгийн төв) and is additional divided into administrative models, every known as a soum (сум; generally sum within the Latin script). Soums are composed of a soum heart (usually a village that serves as the executive heart of the soum) and smaller geographic models every known as a bag (баг), the smallest administrative unit in Mongolia outdoors of the capital. Ulaanbaatar consists of districts, every known as a düüreg (дүүрэг) and additional subdivisions, every known as a khoroo (хороо).

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Mongolia has an “extreme continental climate” and is thought for its freezing winters. About half of the bottom throughout the nation is permafrost. The local weather can also be semi-arid. Mongolia is prone to drought and to notably harsh winters often called dzuds, by which herding animals are identified to drop useless within the freezing temperatures. These points, which local weather change will possible exacerbate, have brought about important dislocation among the many nation’s conventional nomadic inhabitants, forcing many to migrate to Ulaanbaatar and different massive cities.

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Mongolia is a parliamentary democracy. The present structure was ratified in 1992 and amended in 1999 and 2001. The legislative department is the Parliament, or State Nice Khural (Ulsyn Ikh Khural). The 76 ministers within the unicameral[10] State Nice Khural serve four-year phrases. Government energy rests largely with the prime minister and the cupboard, that are charged with executing the nation’s legal guidelines, primarily by means of quite a few ministries. The top of state, nonetheless, is the president, who’s elected by the individuals from amongst nominees chosen by each political occasion with not less than one seat within the State Nice Khural. Though the position is largely ceremonial, the president does serve because the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and has the facility to veto laws, appoint judges and ambassadors, and negotiate worldwide treaties. The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Courtroom, whose judges are appointed for lifetime phrases.

On the aimag level, the prime minister appoints the governor, who serves alongside a neighborhood meeting (khural) elected by the individuals each 4 years. Aimag governments have their very own administrative equipment and price range. Within the metropolis of Ulaanbaatar, the manager chief is a governor-mayor. Every smaller unit—soum, bag, and district and khoroo of Ulaanbaatar—has a governor and khural as effectively.

Governments in Mongolia change frequently. From 2000 to 2014, there have been 16 adjustments of presidency. In consequence, academic insurance policies change typically as effectively.

Individuals and Language

Mongolia is made up predominantly of ethnic Mongols, the most important share of whom are Khalkh Mongols. All the varied sub-ethnic teams of Mongols converse extremely associated variations of the Mongolian language.

Mongolian can also be the official language of the nation. The Mongolian language is usually classified as a subfamily of the Altaic language household, although this classification stays controversial and isn’t universally accepted. On this typology, Mongolian is split into jap and western branches unfold throughout better Mongolia, which incorporates swaths of China (notably the areas of Internal Mongolia and Xinjiang) and the Russian Federation. Some associated languages exist additional afield, notably the Moghal language of Afghanistan and a number of other languages spoken in components of western China. The language household shares similarities with the Turkic languages of Central Asia. It’s unrelated to Chinese language and different tonal languages, though it comprises a big variety of mortgage phrases from Chinese language and Tibetan.

In actuality, the Mongolian language (Mongol khel/Монгол хэл) is a set of highly related languages and dialects. In Mongolia, the federal government considers Khalkh Mongolian, the most-used variation of Mongolian, the nation’s official language.

The nation’s largest minority teams are Kazakhs and Tuvans,[11] whose languages are Turkic in origin. Kazakhs are most heavily concentrated within the far western aimag of Bayan-Ölgii and to a lesser extent in Khovd aimag (additionally within the west of the nation), in addition to in Ulaanbaatar. Kazakh is the dominant language in Bayan-Ölgii, although Mongolian is the main language of communication between Mongolians and different ethnic teams.

The traditional Mongol script and alphabet had been developed from the Uighur alphabet through the imperial period. This script is written high to backside and left to proper. Throughout the socialist period, nonetheless, the Republic of Mongolia adopted the Cyrillic script used for Russian and another Slavic languages. The Mongolian alphabet in Cyrillic makes use of the 33 letters of the Russian alphabet, plus two extra vowels—ө and ү.

At this time, the Cyrillic script is used for many day-to-day actions, though the normal script continues to be used for some functions, similar to for formal paperwork and events, and college students be taught each scripts in class.[12] Nonetheless, in March 2020, the Mongolian authorities introduced that the normal script would turn into the nation’s official script by 2025. The choice will not be anticipated to fully supplant Cyrillic, which can possible proceed for use for a lot of day-to-day actions.

Conventions governing the transliteration of Mongolian into the Latin script, notably for on-line functions, have but to be standardized. For informal actions, similar to textual content messaging (SMS) and posting on social media, many Mongolians use the basic Latin alphabet (the identical because the English alphabet), regardless of its lack of ability to transliterate some Mongolian vowels effectively. Others make the most of the German umlaut to transliterate sure vowels, notably ö for the Mongolian letter ө and ü for ү. On this profile, an expanded Latin script that features the umlaut is used to transliterate Mongolian phrases.[13]

Outbound Mobility

UNESCO’s Institute for Statistics (UIS) estimates that about 13,330 Mongolian college students had been learning overseas in 2019, up from 9,610 in 2014. Nonetheless, due principally to a scarcity of Chinese language knowledge in UNESCO’s reporting, these numbers are possible a big underestimate of Mongolia’s precise outbound scholar mobility.

Previous to the Nineties, most internationally cellular Mongolians studied within the Soviet Union and Soviet satellite states. At this time, nonetheless, neighboring Asian international locations appeal to the most important numbers of Mongolian college students, adopted by a number of main Anglophone international locations. It’s possible that the most important variety of college students are learning in China.[14] In accordance with China’s Ministry of Education, 10,158 Mongolian college students had been learning in China in 2018. In accordance with UIS knowledge, after China, the international locations internet hosting the most important cohorts of Mongolian college students are, in descending order: South Korea, Japan, the U.S., Australia, and the Russian Federation.

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The Mongolian authorities provides loans to many college students going overseas by means of the Schooling Mortgage Fund, which requires college students to return to and work in Mongolia for not less than 5 years after they’ve accomplished their research. Students who examine overseas can even earn a government grant which helps cowl tuition charges and a few residing bills.

Some Mongolian college students examine overseas on scholarships funded by host nation governments or establishments. According to the Mongolian government, in 2019, 1,500 Mongolian college students enrolled in establishments in different international locations based mostly on agreements between the Mongolian and host nation governments. These agreements vary from bilateral scholarships that scale back tuition charges for Mongolian college students, to pathways that open alternatives for Mongolian college students to review in particular international locations and establishments. The highest vacation spot international locations with such agreements are Russia, China, and Hungary. In accordance with the Mongolian Ministry of Schooling and Science (MES), in 2020, 92 percent of Mongolian college students learning overseas had been enrolled in international locations the place agreements between the Mongolian and host nation governments had been in place; 9 p.c of those college students obtained financing from the Schooling Mortgage Fund.

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United States

Within the 2019/20 tutorial yr, 1,438 Mongolian college students studied within the U.S., in keeping with IIE’s Open Doors. In 2020/21, this quantity decreased 13 p.c to 1,258, virtually definitely because of the COVID-19 pandemic, which brought about the overall variety of worldwide college students within the U.S. to lower by 15 p.c. Nonetheless, even within the years previous to the pandemic, the general variety of Mongolian college students within the U.S. fluctuated. At this level, the way forward for Mongolian scholar enrollment within the U.S. is unclear.

In , the educational yr that ended with the beginning of the pandemic, the most important variety of Mongolian college students within the U.S. had been by far undergraduates—834, or almost 60 p.c. Graduate college students totaled 272. There have been 107 Mongolian college students in non-degree packages, which would come with short-term examine overseas college students, these engaged on certificates, and people attending non-degree English packages, typically with the intention of matriculating into a level program. There have been additionally 225 Mongolian college students on optional practical training, or OPT. In 2020/21, effectively into the pandemic, there have been declines in any respect ranges, with non-degree college students and OPT college students liable for the most important declines, mirroring total worldwide scholar traits.

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Mongolia is the fifth-highest sender of worldwide college students to the state of Alaska, behind Canada, China, South Korea, and India. In 2020/21, Mongolians made up round 5 p.c of the overall worldwide scholar inhabitants in that state. Within the years previous to the pandemic, they made up an excellent better proportion of Alaska’s worldwide scholar inhabitants.

There are some hanging similarities between Mongolia and Alaska, notably the local weather, rugged geography, and sparse inhabitants. There additionally seems to be some cooperation between the 2 areas as effectively, notably between Mongolia’s Armed Forces and the Alaska Nationwide Guard. As of 2017, there’s a formal partnership between the Nationwide College of Mongolia (NUM) and the College of Alaska Anchorage (UAA). Such partnerships might assist facilitate the mobility of Mongolian college students to the state.

The Mongolian authorities has tried to develop partnerships with U.S. universities and faculties and negotiate discounted tuition for Mongolian college students. In early 2021, the Minister of Schooling and Science, L. Enkh-Amgalan, mentioned the ministry’s negotiations with U.S. stakeholders relating to decreasing tuition prices for Mongolian college students who needed to review within the U.S. to a price just like what in-state home college students pay at public universities. He was quoted as saying, “Our undergraduate and grasp’s degree college students within the U.S. pay the typical tuition price at minimal US$30,000 to 40,000. We’ll attempt to negotiate contracts with U.S. governments to lower tuition to the U.S. home price of $5,000 to $10,000. At the moment, two to 3 states within the U.S. have mentioned they are going to settle for our provide.”

As one instance, the Mongolian MES and the College of Missouri—Kansas Metropolis (UMKC) signed a memorandum of understanding on March 19, 2020. For Mongolian college students enrolling in UMKC’s bachelor’s and grasp’s diploma enterprise packages, the settlement units tuition and different charges at ranges just like what in-state home college students pay. Engineering and science college students can even examine at a reduced tuition price of $8,500. Tuition charges for out-of-state home and worldwide college students at UMKC are presently about $24,000 a yr. For Mongolian college students, the speed is now $9,900. There are additionally plans to develop a twin diploma program with the Mongolian Nationwide College of Medical Sciences.

Equally, the Science and Expertise College in Ulaanbaatar and George Mason University in Virginia signed a memorandum on March 11, 2021. In accordance with this contract, the 2 establishments will implement a 2+2 twin diploma program that provides Mongolian college students some monetary help. Ordinarily, worldwide college students at George Mason pay $26,000 in tuition every year. In contrast, Mongolian college students can be awarded grants of $5,000 and will obtain additional discounted tuition.


Canada will not be a big vacation spot for Mongolian college students. In 2019, previous to the pandemic, there have been 265 Mongolian college students learning in Canada in any respect ranges (together with Ok-12), in keeping with Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) knowledge. This quantity dropped to 230 in 2020, after the pandemic began. Regardless of the comparatively small numbers, there was a big share development in Mongolian college students in Canada. For instance, in 2004, there have been solely 20 Mongolian college students within the nation. From 2011 to 2012, the quantity virtually doubled, from 90 college students to 170. So there may be potential for future development of the variety of Mongolians within the nation.

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Inbound Mobility

In absolute numbers, Mongolia will not be a big examine vacation spot for students from other countries. The inbound mobility ratio (that’s, the proportion of scholars from different international locations out of Mongolia’s complete scholar inhabitants) is 1.4 p.c. There are somewhat over 1,600 college students from China, and whereas there’s a dearth of accessible knowledge, it’s attainable {that a} important quantity are ethnic Mongols coming from Internal Mongolia, a semi-autonomous area in China simply throughout the border. There are just a few hundred college students every from Russia and South Korea. One main barrier for college kids from different international locations is probably going the usage of the Mongolian language because the medium of instruction for almost all of educational packages. There are solely an estimated seven million speakers of the language, most of whom reside in Mongolia or China.

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In accordance with IIE’s Open Doors data on U.S. study abroad students, there have been 31 American college students on short-term academic exchanges in Mongolia within the 2019/20 college yr (the college yr that ended with the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic). The quantity peaked the earlier tutorial yr at 132 college students. For not less than the earlier 10 years, the variety of U.S. examine overseas college students in Mongolia had fluctuated tremendously however had by no means exceeded 100.

Transnational Schooling

Two Russian state universities function in Mongolia and are accredited by the Mongolian Nationwide Fee of Schooling Accreditation (MNCEA): the Ulan Bator Institute of G.V. Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (PRUE) and the Ulaanbaatar department campus of Irkutsk State Transport University (IrGUPS, the acronym in Russian). PRUE provides college levels in any respect ranges, and all instruction is carried out in Russian. IrGUPS focuses particularly on railway applied sciences, although it awards levels in a variety of technical and vocational fields on the post-secondary and better schooling ranges as effectively.

The German-Mongolian Institute for Resources and Technology (GMIT) was based in 2013 in Ulaanbaatar as a partnership settlement between the Mongolian and German governments. The governing body of the establishment consists of representatives from each governments. The establishment, nonetheless, is accredited as a public Mongolian establishment. It gives bachelor’s and grasp’s levels in numerous engineering, arithmetic, and pure sciences disciplines. The language of instruction is English.

Administration of the Schooling System

The Structure of Mongolia, adopted in 1992, ensures all residents a free primary schooling.[15] Schooling in Mongolia is additional ruled by the Schooling Regulation and a number of other subsector legal guidelines, such because the Preschool Schooling Regulation and the Greater Schooling Regulation.

The highest authority for schooling inside Mongolia is the Ministry of Education and Science (MES) (or Bolovsrol, Shinjlekh Ukhaany Yam/Боловсрол, Шинжлэх Ухааны Яам).[16] MES is liable for:

  • Growing and executing nationwide schooling coverage
  • Growing requirements of schooling in any respect ranges
  • Growing curricula
  • Creating and publishing textbooks
  • Overseeing instructor coaching
  • Figuring out the college yr
  • Growing and administering nationwide examinations
  • Accrediting increased schooling establishments
  • Licensing new increased schooling establishments
  • Overseeing academic analysis[17]

MES is led by the Minister of Schooling, a parliamentarian put in by every new authorities in cost within the State Nice Khural (Parliament). As talked about, governments change frequently, and from 2016 to 2020, there have been 4 completely different schooling ministers. On account of frequent turnover within the ministry, insurance policies can change quickly.

The Ministry is split into numerous departments, notably the Division of Preschool Schooling, the Division of Main and Secondary Schooling, and the Division of Greater Schooling.

Technical and vocational schooling and coaching (TVET) is jointly administered by the MES and the Ministry of Labor and Social Safety (see the TVET part).

Native governments are in command of schooling inside their jurisdictions, and are liable for administering and managing formal and non-formal schooling and in-service instructor coaching.[18] Every aimag additionally has an workplace of schooling responsible for overseeing schools and enhancing efficiency.

Native political officers additionally appoint the heads of individual schools, who’re usually known as a zakhiral (захирал)—or director, in English. There seem like no explicit {qualifications} required of faculty administrators.

Schooling Reforms

For the reason that Nineties, the most significant educational reform in Mongolia has been the gradual transition from a 10-year system of schooling to a 12-year system extra consistent with worldwide requirements. By means of adjustments to the Schooling Regulation, the brand new system was rolled out in levels, with the 10-year system transitioning to an 11-year system in 2004 after which to a 12-year system in 2008. As UNESCO notes, “The primary cohort of scholars to have accomplished the total 12-year cycle [graduated] in 2020.”

Tutorial Calendar and Language of Instruction

The tutorial yr runs from September to June and lasts 32 weeks for elementary college college students and 33 weeks for secondary college college students. Throughout the college yr, there are usually important breaks for the New Yr, the Lunar New Yr (known as Tsagaan Sar in Mongolian),[19] and within the early spring.

Mongolian—particularly Kalkh Mongolian (see the Mongolian Language part)—is the official language of the nation and the primary language of instruction. Nonetheless, Kazakhs have the best to be taught in their very own language whereas additionally being instructed within the Mongolian language. There are each Kazakh- and Mongolian-medium colleges in Bayan-Ölgii aimag, the place the Kazakh minority is most closely concentrated. Observers have recognized issues with second language acquisition of Mongolian amongst Kazakh youngsters. Some Mongolian Kazakhs, particularly from Bayan-Ölgii aimag, go to Kazakhstan to review on the college degree.

Mongolian Names and Titles

Mongolians usually go solely by their first (given) identify. They don’t have surnames or household names as in different components of the world. As a substitute, for official functions, they could use their father’s given identify, typically positioned in entrance of their very own identify in possessive type. Generally, they use an abbreviated type of their father’s given identify, putting simply the primary letter of their father’s identify in entrance of their very own identify.[20] In consequence, on kinds in different international locations the place a final identify or surname is required, they could use their father’s first identify.

Mongolians usually don’t use titles equal to “Mr.” or “Mrs.” in English, aside from some formal ceremonies. It is not uncommon, nonetheless, to check with a person by their career, notably in professions of excessive standing similar to medical doctors and lecturers. Mongolian college students normally name lecturers, professors, and lecturers “Instructor” (bagsh (багш); bagshaa (Багшаа), in direct deal with) or use the instructor’s given identify adopted by the title “Instructor” (for instance, Narantuya Instructor, or Narantuya Bagshaa).

Early Childhood Schooling

Early childhood schooling (ECE) in Mongolia is often known as “kindergarten” (tsetserleg/цэцэрлэг, actually “backyard” and “kindergarten”). It’s out there however not necessary for children ages 2 to 5, and it’s largely funded by the federal government.[21] Whereas entry has improved nationwide,[22] entry for the youngsters of herders in rural areas stays a difficulty,[23] as does access for disabled and poorer children in main cities, notably Ulaanbaatar. Many rural households reside removed from the soum facilities the place the preschools are positioned and lack entry to transportation.

Primary Schooling

Primary schooling—1st by means of twelfth grades—is freely out there to all Mongolian youngsters below the nationwide structure. It’s obligatory till the top of ninth grade. Elementary and secondary colleges are usually out there in each district (soum within the aimags or duureg in Ulaanbaatar). Sometimes, all 12 grades of primary schooling are provided at one college.[24] Nonetheless, in some rural areas, there could also be solely an elementary college or a mixture elementary-lower secondary college, after which college students should go to the aimag heart or Ulaanbaatar to attend secondary or upper-secondary college.

Faculties normally include only one constructing, the place college students of all ranges examine. Faculties the place separate ranges (elementary, decrease secondary, and higher secondary) are housed in several buildings on the identical campus are sometimes known as advanced colleges.

Within the 2019/20 college yr, out of a complete of 802 schools, there have been 79 elementary-only colleges (grades 1–5), 115 mixture elementary-lower secondary colleges (grades 1–9), 563 colleges housing all grades (grades 1–12), and 45 advanced colleges (grades 1–12). Eighteen percent of faculties are personal, and 245 are positioned in Ulaanbaatar. The personal college sector is rising shortly, notably in Ulaanbaatar, though these colleges are inclined to enroll considerably fewer college students than do public colleges.

Enrollment Traits

Enrollment in primary schooling dropped precipitously within the Nineties. In 1987, for instance, the net enrollment ratio (NER) for elementary schooling was 95 p.c. In 1995, it was 81 p.c. Nonetheless, the federal government has made concerted efforts to extend enrollment, and lately, each gross and web enrollment ratios have been very high. In 2015, the elementary NER was 96 p.c, with 94 p.c of graduates persevering with on to decrease secondary schooling. By 2018, the elementary NER had risen to 98 p.c. For secondary schooling, the NER grew from 59 p.c in 1995 to 82 p.c in 2006.

Then again, youngsters from low-income Mongolian households, in each rural and concrete areas, proceed to face difficulties that may forestall them from accessing elementary and secondary schooling. There are additionally main gaps in entry amongst historically deprived teams in any respect ranges. These embody disabled youngsters, youngsters in rural areas, youngsters from poor, farming, or herding households, and members of minority teams, notably Kazakhs and Tuvans. One main entry challenge in city areas is the space between residence and faculty for most of the poorest youngsters, notably in Ulaanbaatar, the place the latest migrants reside on the outskirts of town. Whereas transportation is commonly offered, mother and father usually must pay for it. Lots of the poorest households can’t afford this service.

Curriculum Growth

From 2012 to 2018, the Mongolian Institute for Educational Research was liable for creating the curriculum for all core topics.

In 2019, MES revised the preschool, elementary, and secondary schooling curricula in collaboration with key authorities companies, lecturers, and researchers. All colleges began educating the totally revised curriculum within the 2019/20 college yr. The revision aimed to eradicate duplicate content material, to make sure continuity from one grade to the following, to appropriately calibrate the problem of various topics, to scale back the variety of studying requirements and aims, and to align studying aims with good theoretical and methodological practices.

Standardized Testing

Mongolian college students are required to cross national examinations to matriculate out of elementary and decrease secondary college and to graduate from higher secondary college. In all different years and starting within the third grade, college students take exams designed to evaluate their degree of information and abilities and inform the implementation of the curriculum.

In 2021, for the primary time, Mongolian college students took PISA, the Programme for Worldwide Student Evaluation, organized by the OECD (Group for Financial Cooperation and Growth). Performed each three years, this multinational examination assessments the studying, arithmetic, and science abilities of 15-year-olds. As of early 2022, knowledge from the 2021 examination weren’t out there.

In 2007, Mongolia participated in TIMSS, the Traits in Worldwide Arithmetic and Science Examine, from developed by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) and administered by Boston College within the U.S. The nation has not participated since, and no knowledge from that examination are publicly out there for Mongolia.

Elementary Schooling

Mongolian youngsters begin elementary schooling (baga bolovsrol/бага боловсрол) on the age of six.[25] Elementary schooling lasts from first till fifth grade. Students normally have one main teacher who teaches core topics similar to civics, arithmetic, the Mongolian language, science targeted on nature and the surroundings, and social research. Students start learning English in fifth grade. Separate lecturers might educate particular topics similar to artwork, the English language, well being schooling, music, bodily schooling, and know-how. Instruction per topic lasts 35 minutes for first and second grade college students and 40 minutes for third by means of fifth grade college students. As famous above, the college yr on the elementary degree lasts 32 weeks.

In first and second grades, college students are evaluated solely by means of formative assessments. Starting in third grade, lecturers assess college students utilizing written and oral exams on the finish of each semesters. The top-of-year evaluation determines the coed’s ultimate grade for the yr. Students are given each share and numeric ultimate grades. On the finish of fifth grade, with the intention to matriculate to decrease secondary college, college students should cross the National Primary Examination, which covers three topics: arithmetic, Mongolian language, and science. There isn’t any formal exit qualification awarded to college students on the finish of elementary college.[26]

Decrease Secondary Schooling

Decrease secondary schooling (dund bolovsrol/дунд боловсрол) lasts from sixth by means of ninth grade, when college students are normally about 11 to 14 years previous.[27] Students have one homeroom instructor and separate lecturers for every topic. Students keep in the identical classroom, and the lecturers come to them.

The curriculum consists of laptop science, design and know-how, English, high quality arts (artwork and music), well being schooling, literature, arithmetic, Mongolian language, Mongolian script, bodily schooling, Russian, science (physics, chemistry, and biology), and social science (civics, geography, historical past, and social research). Many colleges provide particular packages for presented college students; there are just a few separate colleges for such college students.[28]

Every class lasts 40 minutes and the college yr is 33 weeks. Some colleges make the most of a shift system due to overcrowding. At this age, college students typically first turn into concerned in extracurricular actions similar to artwork, know-how, and numerous golf equipment targeted on abilities and hobbies similar to chess, dance, clothes design, knitting or stitching, and music. Some after-school actions are designed to assist college students who’ve fallen behind catch up.

To matriculate to higher secondary schooling, college students should cross the Basic National Examination, which assessments the scholars in 4 areas:

  • Mongolian language (together with the normal script) and literature
  • Arithmetic
  • Alternative of one of many following: historical past, science, or social research
  • Alternative of 1 international language: English or Russian

Higher Secondary Schooling

Students attend higher secondary schooling from tenth to twelfth grade and examine the next compulsory courses: biology, chemistry, laptop science, design and know-how, English language, geography, well being schooling, literature, arithmetic, Mongolian language, Mongolian script, bodily schooling, physics, and social research. Students take 4 elective programs within the tenth grade and three every within the eleventh and twelfth grades. Instruction per topic usually lasts 40 minutes.

Elective courses in higher secondary colleges principally give attention to making ready college students to take the University Entrance Exam. On this examination, college students should select not less than two topic areas associated to the sector that they want to examine on the increased schooling degree. In preparation for these topic assessments, college students choose their elective programs accordingly. Academics comply with the core curriculum, which is developed by the Mongolian Institute for Instructional Analysis for these programs.

Students receive the Certificates of Full Secondary Schooling (CSE),[29] or Büren Dund Bolovsrolyn Ünemlekh (Бүрэн Дунд Боловсролын Үнэмлэх), or Gerchilgee (Гэрчилгээ) (“Certificates”). To earn it, college students should cross the Nationwide Higher Secondary Examination.[30] This exit examination consists of 4 components:

  • Mongolian language (together with the normal script) and literature
  • Arithmetic
  • Alternative of one of many following: biology, chemistry, geography, historical past, physics, or social science
  • Alternative of 1 international language: English or Russian

After receiving the CSE, college students are eligible to take the College Entrance Examination and apply for increased schooling.

Vocational college students who full each their vocational research (see the TVET part beneath) and the total higher secondary college observe obtain each a Vocational Certificates and the CSE.

The Schooling of Rural and Nomadic Youngsters

Roughly 20 p.c of the inhabitants of Mongolia are herders. Most kids of herders who don’t reside close to a college are despatched to a boarding college within the aimag heart or soum heart, the place they keep many of the yr aside from throughout college breaks and in the summertime.[31] Launched within the socialist period, boarding colleges had been lengthy thought of successful as a result of they considerably expanded entry to schooling. Nonetheless, within the mid-Nineties, the federal government launched charges for dormitory college students, which resulted in a pointy drop in enrollment. Moreover, the transfer to decrease the beginning age of elementary college to age 6 within the mid- to late-2000s additionally caused enrollment drops, as fewer herder households wished to ship their youngsters to residential colleges at such a younger age.

In some instances, mothers move with their school-age youngster (or youngsters) to the soum or aimag heart for the kid to attend college, leaving the daddy and the remainder of the household within the countryside. Research recommend that this shift has led to a rise in divorce and prompted some households to desert their conventional properties within the countryside to make new lives in soum or aimag facilities or in Ulaanbaatar.

Instructional outcomes of rural and nomadic youngsters are generally poorer than these of scholars in Ulaanbaatar and the aimag facilities. For instance, they carry out much less effectively on standardized assessments and usually tend to drop out of faculty early.

The Mongolian authorities and a few NGOs have launched initiatives to improve education access and quality for rural and nomadic youngsters. These efforts have led to the development of extra dormitories, the introduction of touring preschool lecturers, enhancements within the wage and dealing circumstances of elementary college lecturers in rural areas, and changes to the curriculum to make it extra related for herders and farmers.

Giant numbers of rural herders have migrated to major cities, notably Ulaanbaatar, due largely to environmental elements, notably droughts and dzuds, or harsh winters by which massive numbers of herding animals usually die. Elevated ranges of rural-to-urban migration have led to main overcrowding and excessive student-teacher ratios in a lot of Ulaanbaatar’s colleges.

The Reverse Gender Hole

Mongolia is thought for a pronounced reverse gender hole in schooling. After kindergarten and elementary college, women and girls outperform boys and men in any respect ranges of schooling. Whereas enrollment charges for girls and boys are equally excessive in elementary college, the disparity between the 2 will increase precipitously starting in decrease secondary college, the place about 6 p.c of boys are out of faculty, in contrast with solely 2 p.c of ladies. This out-of-school price grows to 14 p.c of boys and 5 p.c of ladies in higher secondary college. Specifically, boys from poor, rural, or farming or herding backgrounds are much less prone to be enrolled in class. There may be additionally a very huge gender disparity within the jap aimags.

These disparities proceed after secondary college. On the increased schooling degree, extra girls are enrolled than males. In 2018, the gross enrollment ratio for girls in tertiary schooling was about 76 p.c; for males, it was solely 54 p.c, in keeping with data from the World Bank. The consequences are cumulative. In 2020, of your entire inhabitants age 25 and older, the post-secondary academic attainment price for girls was almost half (about 46 p.c), whereas for males it was solely one-third (about 34 p.c).

The reasons for the underperformance of boys and males in schooling are advanced, however sources typically level to household obligations that boys might have—notably in herder households the place they have to work—and to the shortage of funding to ship college students to aimag facilities or different bigger communities to finish primary schooling. There are additionally complaints that the curriculum lacks relevance to herders. On account of these elements, there’s a increased drop-out price amongst boys, notably from rural and herder households.

Whereas women and girls carry out higher in schooling, working-age girls are underrepresented within the labor market total. In accordance with a report by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), solely about 53 p.c of ladies had been employed in 2019. This compares with about 68 p.c of males. Ladies are additionally underpaid on common and relegated extra typically to jobs in much less well-paying industries, similar to social companies, in contrast with males. Males continue to carry most posts in authorities and the highest management of corporations throughout the nation. Ladies are additionally usually liable for the majority of unpaid household and childcare duties. The COVID-19 pandemic additionally pressured extra girls to stay at residence with their youngsters when childcare was restricted to sluggish the unfold of the virus.

Technical and Vocational Schooling and Coaching (TVET)

Technical and vocational education (TVET) in Mongolia is guided by the Regulation on Vocational Schooling and Coaching, which was most just lately revised in 2009. The sub-sector is the truth is regulated by a mix of the federal government and the personal sector by means of a physique known as the Nationwide Council on Vocational Schooling and Coaching (NCVET). The Ministry of Labor and Social Safety (MLSP) is the primary authorities physique in command of TVET and is “liable for coordination and implementation of TVET coverage, technique, and planning.” Amongst MLSP’s duties are the regulation of TVET coaching establishments, the event of occupational requirements at the side of personal trade, and the coaching of TVET lecturers. MLSP additionally works in conjunction with MES to manage TVET establishments. Since 2002, TVET establishments have additionally been accredited by the Mongolian Nationwide Council for Schooling Accreditation (MNCEA).

In accordance with UNESCO, 4 sources account for many of the TVET funding in Mongolia: the nationwide price range, a levy on international employees, worldwide improvement help, and personal firms. Of those, the nationwide authorities gives the most important ranges of funding.

Secondary-Stage TVET

Formal TVET on the secondary degree begins for college kids in tenth grade. The doorway requirement is to have accomplished decrease secondary schooling; there isn’t a admissions examination. Students can enroll in secondary-level TVET packages at Vocational Training and Production Centers (VTPCs) or polytechnic faculties. Students main in fields similar to agriculture, development work, cosmetology, and hairdressing.

There are two main tracks for formal TVET out there to secondary college college students:

  • A one-year program geared toward sure professions that leads to a Vocational Certificates, or Mergejliin Bolovsroliin ünemlekh (Мэргэжлийн боловсролын үнэмлэх), out there at VTPCs or polytechnic faculties. This program is meant to arrange college students for direct entry to the labor market after commencement.
  • A two-and-a-half- to three-year program after which college students obtain each a Certificates of Full Secondary Schooling (CSE) and a Vocational Certificates, out there solely at VTPCs. Students can apply for post-secondary vocational packages with this credential, notably the shorter (one-and-a-half-year) program that results in a Technical Schooling Diploma.

The number of TVET institutions has elevated considerably lately. Within the 2010/11 tutorial yr, there have been 63 establishments. However by 2021, there have been 80 establishments, a rise of 27 p.c. Sixty-two p.c are public, and 38 p.c are personal. Whereas the variety of TVET college students declined between 2011 and 2017, enrollments elevated once more within the 2019/20 tutorial yr, after they reached 37,800. Male college students make up greater than half of all college students in these TVET packages. In 2019/20, 59 p.c, 22,000, of all TVET college students had been male.

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Submit-secondary TVET

The principle establishments offering post-secondary TVET are increased vocational schooling faculties. A couple of universities and faculties provide TVET packages as effectively,[32] typically by means of specialised coaching facilities. There are two main programs:

  •  A one-and-a-half-year Technical Schooling Diploma, typically simply known as a Diplom (Диплом). Candidates should maintain a Certificates of Full Secondary Schooling in a vocational observe to be admitted.
  • A 3-year Technical Schooling Diploma (Diplom/Диплом) for these with a Certificates of Common Secondary Schooling in a basic observe.

Each packages put together graduates to enter the labor market or proceed their coaching at a better degree. Graduates of those packages can apply and be admitted to the second or third yr of bachelor’s diploma packages.

Brief-Time period TVET Applications

There are additionally a big variety of short-term programs in sure in-demand fields similar to auto restore and cooking. Lasting three months or much less, these packages will not be part of Mongolia’s normal schooling framework. The credential normally awarded for these packages is the Competency Certificates, or Chadamjiin gerchilgee (Чадамжийн гэрчилгээ).

Initially these packages weren’t straight regulated by MLSP and had been provided by personal entities and are thus usually thought of “non-formal” packages. Nonetheless, in 2018, MLSP started regulating these packages to make sure higher high quality. As of 2019, there have been about 2,000 establishments providing these packages, 712 of which had been formal TVET establishments.

Greater Schooling

Throughout the socialist period, Mongolian increased schooling consisted of one large state university, the Nationwide College of Mongolia (NUM) (generally additionally known as the Mongolian State College in English), based in 1942. In 1983, the college was divided into a number of specialist faculties. Throughout this era, establishments had been usually run by a committee representing the Mongolian Individuals’s Revolutionary Social gathering (MPRP), together with the college director or president, who was appointed straight by the occasion.[33] At this time, there are various separate public universities. These universities are principally autonomous, hiring their very own school and setting their very own curricula.

The administration of upper schooling establishments largely falls below the purview of the MES—particularly its Division of Greater Schooling. Nonetheless, a number of specialised increased schooling establishments have been based and at the moment are largely run by particular authorities ministries. For instance, the Nationwide Protection College was based by the Ministry of Protection, and its president is appointed and dismissed by the Minister of Protection.[34] As a result of this establishment is below the direct management of one other ministry, many MES laws, similar to these involved with institutional management, don’t apply.

Kinds of Establishments

As of early 2022, there have been 76 accredited higher education institutions in Mongolia, although UNESCO notes that there have been 94 establishments in 2020. These establishments are each public and private and are categorized into the next sorts:

  • Universities (ikh surguul (singular)/их сургууль) present bachelor’s, grasp’s, and doctoral diploma packages. Most diploma packages embody analysis, sensible coaching, and laboratory programs or different types of analysis expertise. Some universities provide solely grasp’s and doctoral packages. Universities are additionally anticipated to conduct analysis. There have been 35 universities—14 public and 21 personal—as of 2020.
  • Institutes (deed surguul (singular)/дээд сургууль) award bachelor’s and grasp’s levels, primarily in scientific fields. Additionally they conduct some analysis. There are 52 institutes: 4 public and 48 personal.
  • Schools (kollej (singular)/коллеж) run schooling and vocational coaching packages that embody classroom instruction and sensible coaching that culminates in a diploma or bachelor’s diploma. They’re devoted solely to educating and will not be anticipated to supply any analysis.[35] There are six faculties, all of that are personal.

There are a total of 18 public establishments—14 universities and 4 institutes. Nearly all of increased schooling college students—about 90 p.c—attend public institutions, that are usually thought of to be the extra elite establishments within the nation. Most establishments are in Ulaanbaatar.

Many universities, notably the bigger, public ones, are anticipated to work towards reaching the standing of “” and improve research capabilities and output amongst their school, analysis workers, and college students.

Enrollment Traits

Throughout the socialist period, increased schooling enrollment was comparatively modest. In accordance with data from the World Bank, in 1985, the gross enrollment ratio (GER) for increased schooling was 24 p.c, with a complete of 46,946 college students enrolled. Following the abrupt transition to a market economic system within the early Nineties, total enrollment numbers and the GER fell. By 1993, solely 28,722 college students had been enrolled.

However starting within the mid-Nineties, enrollment in increased schooling picked up and commenced to develop dramatically. By 2000, the GER had risen to about 30 p.c, or 74,025 college students. Enrollment continued to rise steadily till 2015, when the GER peaked at 68 p.c and complete enrollment reached 179,540 college students. Knowledge after 2018 are uneven, however there seems to have been a slight lower in enrollment lately.

Regardless of the federal government’s makes an attempt to spread development evenly throughout the nation, most college students nonetheless examine in Ulaanbaatar. The federal government’s chief try to extend enrollments elsewhere has concerned decreasing the required rating on the College Entrance Examination, though this transfer has raised considerations about reductions in high quality and the reputations of establishments outdoors of Ulaanbaatar.

A 2019 report from the Nationwide Statistical Workplace of Mongolia famous that the highest majors amongst college college students had been medical sciences (22 p.c), enterprise (20 p.c), engineering (17 p.c), schooling (15 p.c), and regulation (8 p.c).


State funds are solely a small portion of institutional finances, even amongst public establishments. The biggest sources of financing for increased schooling establishments are personal, together with scholar tuition and charges, donations, analysis grants, and income era actions. Student tuition is definitely the most important supply of revenue for establishments, encompassing 92 p.c of the income of public establishments.

Funds are the largest barrier to increased schooling for low-income Mongolians, notably for rural college students shifting to Ulaanbaatar for varsity. Along with tuition, these college students should cope with paying for residing quarters and cope with a better price of residing. Historically, many college students who had been unable to afford tuition on their very own, in addition to orphans and the disabled, might entry grants and loans from the Schooling Mortgage Fund, however the variety of college students receiving such awards has decreased lately. Those that profit most from state assist are typically the youngsters of civil servants, moderately than low-income Mongolians.

Some college students obtain authorities grants, allowances, and tuition loans from the federal government to review each at Mongolian establishments and overseas. The Education Loan Fund gives three several types of assist:

  • Loans for college kids learning in Mongolian establishments on the bachelor’s, grasp’s, or doctoral degree
  • Loans for college kids learning overseas in any respect ranges
  • Grants for learners with disabilities or for these whose relations are disabled

Some college students additionally obtain monetary help from social care companies. Moreover, some members of parliament use discretionary funds to finance scholarships for choose college students.

Some personal and non-governmental organizations additionally help college students by means of grants and scholarships. Greater schooling establishments themselves have their very own insurance policies towards awarding monetary help to college students.


Greater schooling and TVET establishments are accredited by the Mongolian National Council for Education Accreditation (MNCEA) (Bolovsrolyn Magadlan Itgemjlekh Ündesnii Zövlöl/Боловсролын магадлан итгэмжлэх үндэсний зөвлөл), an unbiased, statutory company. Established in 1998, this physique is charged with accrediting all increased schooling and TVET establishments.[36] With a view to obtain authorities funding and for college kids to obtain monetary assist from the federal government, an establishment (public or personal) should be accredited. Program accreditation, nonetheless, is not compulsory.

As of March 2022, MNCEA had accredited 76 private and non-private higher education institutions, 30 TVET institutions, and 4 secondary colleges.

By regulation, MNCEA is ruled by a board consisting of a “Chairman, Vice Chairman, and representatives from schooling establishments {and professional} communities.” Usually the chairman is an official from MES.

MNCEA itself is composed of several bodies:

  • The Secretariat is in command of MNCEA’s day by day operations.
  • The Accreditation Fee for Greater Schooling is in command of accrediting increased schooling establishments and all of their packages.
  • The Accreditation Council for Vocational and Technical Schooling is in command of accrediting all TVET establishments, similar to polytechnical faculties and vocational colleges.
  • The Area Committees develop requirements and supply accreditation for sure tutorial packages.
  • Exterior reviewers are the consultants who conduct unbiased evaluations on the request of a council or subject committee.

For institutional accreditation, there’s a basic three-step course of:

  1. Self-evaluation: A crew throughout the establishment completes the self-assessment, guaranteeing that the establishment meets MNCEA’s standards. The analysis is then reviewed and permitted by the establishment’s governing board. As soon as permitted, the self-assessment is submitted to MNCEA.
  2. Evaluation by exterior consultants: If glad with the preliminary software, the Secretariat of MNCEA appoints a coordinator to evaluate the self-assessment extra totally to make sure full completion. As soon as glad, the coordinator fingers the evaluation to the related inner fee (the Greater Schooling Fee or the TVET Fee), which assembles a crew of consultants to deal with the method. The crew of consultants totally opinions the self-assessment after which conducts a website go to lasting from three to 5 days, throughout which they collect info as wanted. They then draft a report by which they suggest that the establishment has “totally met,” “provisionally met,” or “not met” the requirements for accreditation.
  3. Accreditation choice: The fee opinions and discusses the skilled report. If glad with the consultants’ opinion, they then conform to one of many following:
    1. Absolutely met: A proposal for five-year accreditation
    2. Provisionally met: A proposal for one- or two-year accreditation
    3. Not met: An announcement, after which the method ends

The Governing Board then approves the choice. If accredited, the establishment then begins the registration course of. There may be an appeals course of for establishments that disagree with MNCEA’s ultimate choice.

Program accreditation follows the identical primary steps. As a substitute of one of many two commissions, nonetheless, one of many subject committees, which develop programmatic requirements, conducts the evaluate inside MNCEA.

In accordance with MNCEA, 17 Mongolian increased schooling establishments have achieved accreditation for not less than a few of their packages from worldwide accreditation our bodies. The principle worldwide accreditation our bodies embody:

A list of programs accredited by one in all these worldwide companies is accessible in English on MNCEA’s web site.

Institutional Governance

At the least in concept, all Mongolian increased schooling establishments are unbiased and might rent their very own school and workers. Establishments have tried to undertake the shared governance system, by which representatives of all main stakeholders from throughout the establishment – similar to administration, governing boards, school, workers, and college students – are concerned in policy- and decision-making. This mannequin has been adopted from the U.S. and different Western international locations, notably below the affect of donor organizations. Nonetheless, O. Gantogtokh[37] has argued that “the state-run universities haven’t achieved desired autonomy as a consequence of completely different ruling events’ pursuits and short-term political reversals.”

By regulation, all establishments should have a governing board, similar to a board of administrators.[38] The federal government laws on governing boards for each private and non-private establishments change often as the federal government adjustments. Basically, nonetheless, boards are speculated to be the highest degree of governance for an establishment, although this doesn’t all the time occur in observe, notably inside personal establishments. Boards have budgetary duty for the establishment and are usually in command of strategic planning, together with in areas similar to group, staffing, salaries, and enrollment. In public establishments, boards are additionally usually speculated to suggest the appointment or dismissal of the manager chief of the establishment (that’s, the president or director). The appointment or dismissal is in the end carried out by the MES or different related authorities ministries.

Governing boards at each private and non-private establishments are mandated to incorporate representatives of the “founder” (that’s, the federal government or a particular ministry, within the case of public establishments, or the proprietary proprietor of a non-public establishment), school, college students, and alumni.[39] There are few laws in regards to the precise proportional composition of the board, besides that the founder’s representatives ought to characterize 51 to 60 p.c of board members. In public establishments, authorities officers normally characterize a big share of board members, generally resulting in considerations about institutional autonomy. These officers can come from MES, the central authorities, or a particular ministry, notably for establishments with a particular focus or based by a particular authorities ministry.

Within the case of personal establishments, founders typically choose numerous people inner to the establishment, similar to members of the administration or school, in keeping with an evaluation by Jargalsaikhan.[40] Governing boards in these establishments are sometimes, within the phrases of Gantogtokh, largely “symbolic,” with the proprietor making the vast majority of selections for the establishments. That mentioned, Jargalsaikhan’s evaluation discovered that 14 personal establishments contemplate their board of administrators to be the very best authority throughout the establishment.

The manager chief of a better schooling establishment will be known as a president or director (zakhiral/захирал), or rector (rektor/ректор). In public universities, the board of administrators is meant to nominate the president, however in actuality, the federal government (possible MES or one other ministry) normally does.[41] Sometimes, in private institutions, the president is the proprietary proprietor of the establishment or is appointed by the proprietor.

College and Instructing Employees

All increased schooling school members are required to have at least a master’s degree. The current regulations additionally stipulate that 15 p.c of college at institutes and 30 p.c of college at universities ought to maintain doctoral levels. Master’s and doctoral diploma packages might solely be taught by school with doctoral levels.

It is not uncommon for college kids at Mongolian increased schooling establishments to easily name professors or lecturers “Instructor” (Bagsh, or Bagshaa in direct deal with).

A 2020 MES order specified basic efficiency necessities for all school, that are divided into three areas: educating, analysis and innovation, {and professional} and social service. Though the expectations differ in keeping with the rank of the school member, school in any respect ranges are anticipated to have interaction in all three areas.

College school are anticipated to take part in skilled improvement actions, which are sometimes offered straight at their establishments. College at establishments outdoors of Ulaanbaatar generally go to town for periodic coaching seminars and workshops. In some instances, trainers from Ulaanbaatar come to rural establishments to offer coaching. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, many of those coaching alternatives had been provided on-line.

Tutorial Calendar and Credit score and Grading Techniques

The tutorial calendar runs from September to June and is often divided into two semesters.

Mongolian increased schooling establishments make the most of a credit-hour system similar to that used at U.S. and Canadian establishments. For instance, most four-year bachelor’s diploma packages in Mongolia require college students to earn 120 credit score hours to graduate, the identical as for many American packages. (To transform these credit to the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS), most recommend doubling the variety of credit within the U.S. or Canadian system to realize the suitable variety of ECTS credit. A typical bachelor’s diploma in ECTS is 180 to 240 credit.)

The grading system for many establishments can also be carefully aligned with these used within the U.S. and Canada, together with a share and letter grades within the A to F scale and a 4.0 grade level common (GPA) scale. Evaluation inside particular person lessons can contain any combination of examinations, initiatives, unbiased coursework, and attendance and participation. Grading methods can differ amongst establishments.

0822 WENR Mongolia gfx 1 10 Working v3 WENR 0822 Mongolia Graphic10 002

Under is WES’ grading conversion scale for Mongolia.

0822 WENR Mongolia gfx 1 10 Working v3 WENR 0822 Mongolia Graphic11 002

Undergraduate Schooling

To be admitted to an undergraduate program, college students should maintain a Certificates of Accomplished Secondary Schooling and take the College Entrance Examination (defined beneath).[42] Some personal establishments additionally maintain their very own entrance exams.[43]

The principle undergraduate diploma provided in Mongolia is the bachelor’s diploma (Bakalavryn zereg/Бакалаврын зэрэг), which is often awarded after 4 years of full-time examine and the completion of 120 credit.[44] Beginning in 2014, bachelor’s diploma packages started to comply with the U.S.-style liberal arts mannequin: Students obtain about one and a half years of basic schooling (in quite a lot of topics) and two and a half years of instruction of their main topic. Usually, college students should obtain a ultimate GPA of not less than 1.7, or an total grade of 61 p.c or extra, to earn this diploma. Students could also be required to finish a thesis, ultimate venture, internship, or some sensible expertise with the intention to be awarded the diploma, relying on the establishment and subject of examine. Some establishments, such because the National University of Mongolia (NUM), acknowledge minor fields of examine, just like U.S. establishments.

In a number of fields, college students earn their first skilled diploma on the undergraduate degree.[45] Bachelor’s levels in pharmacy and veterinary science are awarded after 5 years of full-time examine. Bachelor’s-level medical and dental levels are every awarded after six years (see Medical Schooling).

Moreover, a a lot smaller variety of establishments provide a diploma (Diplom/Диплом), which college students can normally earn after two or three years of full-time examine.[46] This has generally been compared with an affiliate diploma within the U.S. Whereas the diploma is supposed to grant college students entry to sure technical fields, graduates might obtain as much as two years of superior standing in a bachelor’s diploma program.

Within the Nineties, increased schooling levels had been introduced extra into line with worldwide requirements—particularly with the Bologna system. Previous to this, the primary and highest levels provided in Mongolia had been the next:[47]

  • Diploma of Specialist or First Diploma, or Mergejliin diplom (Мэргэжлийн диплом): The principle precursor to the bachelor’s diploma, it additionally required about 4 years of examine, plus a ultimate thesis or examination. It was phased out within the late Nineties.
  • Skilled Diploma of Specialist: That is the precursor to bachelor’s levels in skilled fields of examine. It required roughly the identical period of time to finish as the present skilled bachelor’s diploma packages, together with a ultimate thesis and a ultimate nationwide examination.

These pre-Nineties diplomas carefully adopted the Soviet mannequin.

The College Entrance Examination

Like a lot of its Asian neighbors (similar to China and South Korea), Mongolia requires college students to sit down for a nationwide examination—the University Entrance Exam (UEE) or Ikh Deed Surguuliin Elseltiin Shalgalt (Их дээд сургуулийн элсэлтийн шалгалт)—to use for increased schooling. The doorway examination is run by the Schooling Analysis Middle, a division of MES. Throughout the twelfth grade, college students should cross the Mongolian language examination element with the intention to sit for the rest of the UEE.

The topic exams normally happen over several days on the finish of June or starting of July[48] at UEE examination centers throughout the nation, principally in Ulaanbaatar and aimag facilities. Students choose two topics to take, based mostly on their supposed subject of examine: biology, chemistry, English, geography, historical past, arithmetic, Mongolian, physics, Russian, and social research.

Scores are usually processed and made out there inside 24 hours. Every scholar is given a uncooked rating and a percentile rating. The top score on the examination is 800. MES decides minimal scores for entrance into increased schooling establishments. The minimal scores are usually completely different between establishments in Ulaanbaatar and rural areas to encourage extra enrollment in rural establishments, in addition to between private and non-private establishments. In 2019, for instance, the minimal rating for entrance into public universities in Ulaanbaatar was 480 and for personal universities it was 410. The minimal rating for a rural establishment was 400.

In 2021, approximately 40,000 secondary school graduates took the examination, which was postponed barely due to the pandemic.

Graduate Schooling

Master’s Levels

To be admitted to a grasp’s diploma program, college students are required to carry a bachelor’s diploma. They’re additionally typically required to have achieved an undergraduate GPA of two.7 or a cumulative grade of 79 p.c or increased.[49] Students with lower than a 3.2 GPA could also be required to take an entrance examination.

A grasp’s diploma (Magistryn zereg/Магистрын зэрэг) includes one and a half to 2 years of examine, or 30 to 35 semester credit.[50] Students should produce a ultimate thesis based mostly on unique analysis, and should defend it publicly. They might even be required to finish one other ultimate element similar to a venture, internship, or sensible expertise.

Doctoral Levels

The one actual requirement for admission to a doctoral program is for an applicant to carry a grasp’s diploma.[51]

Doctoral packages usually start with three years of coursework, typically very research-intensive, amounting to about 60 credit.[52] Students then produce a doctoral dissertation (doktoryn dissertatsi/докторын диссертаци) based mostly on unique analysis and defend it to a panel of college. The most common doctoral qualification is the PhD (written in English as such), which known as colloquially physician (Doktor/Доктор).

There’s a qualification past the PhD often called the Physician of Science diploma (Shinjlekh Ukhaani Doktor/Шинжлэх ухааны доктор).[53] It usually requires two and a half to 3 years of examine past the PhD.

Skilled Schooling

Schooling for Well being Care Professionals

All medical and healthcare colleges are under the purview of the MES, whereas coaching requirements are developed by the Ministry of Well being. This division has brought about some issues, as the 2 ministries typically don’t totally coordinate.

The one public healthcare college within the nation is the Mongolian Nationwide College of Medical Sciences (MNUMS) (Anagaakhyn Shinjlekh Ukhaani Ündesnii Ikh Surguul/Анагаахын Шинжлэх Ухааны Үндэсний Их Сургууль). MNUMS says that it has educated about 90 p.c of all healthcare professionals within the nation. There are eight colleges throughout the college’s predominant campus in Ulaanbaatar:

  • College of Medication
  • College of Dentistry
  • College of Pharmacy
  • College of Bio-Medication
  • College of Public Well being
  • College of Nursing
  • College of Conventional Medication
  • Graduate College

MNUMS additionally has department campuses in three aimags: Darkhan-Uul, Dornogovi, and Gobi-Altai. ASIIN (based mostly in Germany) accredited MNUMS’s bachelor’s diploma program in drugs in 2016. Moreover, the curriculum of MNUMS’s undergraduate drugs program efficiently handed an analysis by the

As of 2014, there have been six personal establishments offering schooling for healthcare practitioners, according to the WHO: Ach Greater Instructional Establishment, Enerel School, Etugen Greater Instructional Establishment, Monos Greater Instructional Establishment, Otoch Manaram Greater Instructional Establishment, and Ulaanbaatar Greater Instructional Establishment.

As talked about earlier, first levels for healthcare professionals are usually awarded at the bachelor’s level, with packages starting from 4 to 6 years. This consists of biomedical specialists, dentists, medical doctors of traditional Mongolian medicine, laboratory technicians, midwives, pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, physicians, and public well being specialists. (There are a number of paths into nursing, that are described additional, beneath.)

0822 WENR Mongolia gfx 1 10 Working v3 WENR 0822 Mongolia Graphic12

Medical medical doctors require six years of examine on the undergraduate degree. At MNUMS, this ends in 207 credit.

For , a Bachelor’s Diploma in Nursing is a four-year program requiring the completion of 120 credit score hours. It requires a Certificates of Common Schooling and passage of an entrance examination. There are two decrease degree {qualifications}: an Assistant Nurse is a three-year program (90 credit) that’s open to anybody with a Certificates of Common Schooling. A Diploma Nurse can also be a three-year, 90-credit program however requires passage of the doorway examination. Diploma Nurses might proceed on ultimately to finish a bachelor’s diploma.

Following completion of the bachelor’s diploma in any healthcare career, people should sit for a licensing examination. In the event that they cross it, people are given a license to observe for a set size of time, usually starting from two to 5 years. They’ll then work in a related public or personal hospital, facility, or group. Licensure renewal typically requires a sure variety of skilled improvement hours and generally passage of an examination.

Whereas licensed and working towards their explicit career, healthcare practitioners in nearly all fields can work in direction of becoming a specialist. They should be admitted to a specialty coaching program, which generally includes an admission examination. Coaching can vary from just a few months to some years, relying on the career and specialty (see desk above).

Practitioners (together with in nursing), whether or not they’re specialists or not, can apply to graduate level programs, every of which generally requires an admissions examination in addition to satisfaction of different standards. Graduate-level packages comply with the identical pathway as in different fields: grasp’s diploma (a minimal of 1 and a half years); Ph.D (a minimal of three years); and a Physician of Science (no minimal variety of years specified however usually understood to be two and a half to 3 years). One should maintain the earlier qualification with the intention to be admitted to the following degree.

These diploma ranges enable professionals to enter educating, coaching, analysis, and administration. With one in all these {qualifications}, people can, for instance, turn into a professor or researcher at a college. Within the fields of public well being and biomedicine, some people holding bachelor’s levels in sure different disciplines, such because the pure or social sciences, can apply and be admitted to a grasp’s diploma program and ascend the schooling ladder in that subject from there.

Instructor Schooling and Coaching

Universities and faculties prepare most preschool, main, and secondary college lecturers in Mongolia.[55] The most important instructor coaching establishment is the Mongolian Nationwide College of Schooling (MNUE) (Mongol Ulsyn Bolovsrolyn Ikh Surguul/Монгол Улсын Боловсролын Их Сургууль).[56] There may be one rural instructor coaching school in Arkhangai aimag that’s a part of MNUE: the Arkhangai Academics College.

In a review of Mongolia’s education policy, UNESCO famous that only a few elementary instructor teaching programs had been accredited. In reality, as of June 2020, solely two such packages had been, together with MNUE’s program. Moreover, the UNESCO evaluate famous considerations in regards to the uneven high quality of instructor schooling and coaching packages across the nation. A 2020 report from the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) additional famous a discrepancy in high quality between MNUE and Ulaanbaatar-based packages relative to extra rural instructor coaching packages.

In accordance with a 2019 ADB sub-sector report on primary and sector education issued collectively with the MES, there may be presently a substantial lack of readability on insurance policies round instructor {qualifications} because of the issuance of quite a few laws over time, a few of which seem to contradict the primary schooling legal guidelines. For instance, the Preschool Schooling Regulation and the Main and Secondary Schooling Regulation require lecturers at these ranges to carry a proper educating certificates. Certainly, from 2014 to about 2018, to show on the elementary or secondary degree, lecturers had to be licensed. That system has formally ended: As of 2019, with the intention to educate, potential lecturers should merely receive a bachelor’s diploma in educating,[57] with secondary college lecturers selecting a particular subject as a specialty. Holding a related bachelor’s diploma is enough qualification to show.

Entrance right into a instructor schooling program normally requires a College Entrance Examination rating of 480 and, as of 2018, establishments are speculated to require entrance essays by which college students clarify their health for and curiosity in educating. By regulation, the coursework for teacher education programs needs to be 30 p.c primary (usually liberal arts) programs, 25 p.c primary educating and schooling programs, and 45 p.c main programs. Nonetheless, a 2019 examine discovered that 5 public establishments (together with MNUE) and 19 personal establishments weren’t following these laws. Instructor teaching programs should additionally embody a educating observe element.

Academics should full in-service professional development requirements, notably of their first and fifth years of service after which each 5 years afterward. Ongoing participation in skilled improvement actions can also be required for any kind of promotion. Formal, off-site coaching has been the norm, although there’s a motion to convey extra coaching straight to high school websites. Specifically, a non-profit group known as the Mongolian Education Alliance (MEA) has turn into a extra vital participant in skilled improvement for lecturers. Some universities run coaching packages straight on the colleges the place lecturers work.

Academics are sometimes inspired to proceed their schooling and procure a grasp’s diploma. Some instructor coaching establishments, notably MNUE, additionally provide doctoral degree packages in schooling.

[1] This abstract of the Mongol Empire is sourced from Jack Weatherford. (2004). Genghis Khan and the Making of the Trendy World. New York: Three Rivers Press.

[2] The phrase khaan means “king” or “chief” in Mongolian.

[3] Gita Steiner-Khamsi & Ines Stolpe. (2006). Instructional import: native encounters with world forces in Mongolia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

[4] Besides the place famous, this part on the socialist interval is sourced from: Morris Rossabi. (2005). Trendy Mongolia: from khans to commissars to capitalists. Berkeley: College of California Press.

[5] Steiner-Khamsi & Stolpe, 2006.

[6] Besides the place famous, this part is sourced from Rossabi, 2005.

[7] Since Mongolia had been a member of the UN since 1961, UN companies similar to UNESCO and UNICEF had been already current within the nation right now.

[8] Steiner-Khamsi & Stolpe, 2006

[9] Worldwide media typically transliterate Ulaanbaatar into the Latin script as Ulan Bator.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Yembuu, B. (2010). Mongolia. In P. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGaw, (Eds.), Worldwide Encyclopedia of Schooling, vol. 5 (pp. 681–686). Oxford: Elsevier.

[12] The normal script is used solely for the Mongolian language in Internal Mongolia, China.

[13] A generally used on-line Mongolian-English dictionary is the Bolor Dictionary: http://www.bolor-toli.com/.

[14] China doesn’t frequently submit scholar mobility knowledge to UIS, making direct comparability more difficult.

[15] Yembuu, 2010.

[16] The identify of Mongolia’s schooling ministry has modified a number of occasions through the years, typically with adjustments of presidency. It was most just lately named the Ministry of Schooling, Tradition, Science, and Sport, or MECSS.

[17] Yembuu, 2010.

[18] Ibid., p. 684.

[19] Tsagaan Sar usually happens in February similtaneously Lunar New Yr celebrations in China and elsewhere in East Asia. Celebrations normally final one to 2 weeks.

[20] When transliterated into the Latin script, the abbreviated father’s identify could also be written as two letters, similar to “Kh.” (for Х. within the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet) or “Ts.” (Ц). For instance: D. Gerelmaa (Д. Гэрэлмаа) or Ch. Batbayar (Ч. Батбаяр).

[21] Australian Authorities, Division of Schooling, Abilities, and Employment. (n.d.) Schooling system, Mongolia. Retrieved from https://internationaleducation.gov.au/cep/Asia-Pacific/Mongolia/Education-System/Pages/default.aspx.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Yembuu, 2010.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Australian Authorities, n.d.

[26] Ibid.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Yembuu, 2010.

[29] Along with “Certificates of Full Secondary Schooling (CSE),” different phrases are used to translate the identify of Mongolia’s higher secondary leaving certificates into English, together with “Common Secondary Schooling Certificates” and the “College Leaving Certificates.”

[30] Australian Authorities, n.d.

[31] Yembuu, 2010.

[32] Yembuu, 2010.

[33] Jargalsaikhan, J. (2021). Place of the Board of Administrators in Greater Schooling Establishments in Mongolia – Specializing in Evaluation of Founder’s Representatives. Greater Schooling Research, 11(4).

[34] Ibid.

[35] Ibid.

[36] Yembuu, 2010

[37] 2018, p. 3.

[38] Jargalsaikhan, 2021.

[39] Ibid.

[40] Ibid.

[41] Ibid.

[42] Ibid.

[43] Ibid.

[44] Ibid.

[45] Ibid.; Yembuu, 2010.

[46] Ibid.

[47] Ibid.

[48] Yembuu, 2010.

[49] Australian Authorities

[50] Ibid.

[51] Ibid.

[52] Ibid.

[53] Yembuu, 2010.

[54] The World Well being Group report doesn’t specify any specialised coaching necessities for medical medical doctors working towards Western-style drugs.

[55] Yembuu, 2010.

[56] MNUE was previously known as (in English) the Mongolian State College of Schooling (MSUE).

[57] A 2009 UNESCO report famous that educating candidates are additionally required to cross a number of examinations to be certified to show. It’s unclear if that is nonetheless the case.


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